Bumisuka.com – Fulfill and Limit These Nutrients to Prevent Cardiovascular Disease. Globally, cardiovascular disease is still a major health problem that causes high mortality rates. Cardiovascular disease refers to a collection of health problems caused by decreased function of the heart and blood vessels, such as coronary heart disease (CHD), heart failure, hypertension, to stroke.
Based on the 2018 Basic Health Research (Riskesdas) data, the prevalence of heart disease and hypertension in Indonesia reached 1.5 percent and 8.4 percent of the total population, respectively. This needs to be a concern because cardiovascular disease is a multifactorial health problem.
Early preventive efforts are the right steps to maintain heart and blood vessel health, one of which is by fulfilling a balanced nutritional intake through a proper and healthy diet.
Below are some nutrients that you need to fulfill and limit their intake to maintain a healthy heart and blood vessels, read on until the end, OK!
1. Meet the intake of magnesium
A 2014 report in the Journal of Nutrition College explained that magnesium is an important mineral in maintaining heart health.
The job of magnesium is to help the heart muscle relax. When the concentration of magnesium in the blood decreases, the heart muscle cannot work optimally, thus affecting blood pressure which can lead to hypertension. That’s why magnesium intake needs to be met every day.
Based on the 2019 Nutrient Adequacy Rate (RDA), Indonesian people at least need 350 milligrams (mg) of magnesium per day for adults and 50-150 mg per day for children. You can meet your intake of these minerals from food sources such as meat, dairy and their products, green vegetables, chocolate, cereals, whole grains, and nuts.
2. Meet the intake of potassium
The association of potassium intake with heart and blood vessel health has been widely reported through various studies. Among them in the Journal of Nutrition College in 2010, which stated that respondents who had less potassium intake had twice the risk of suffering from hypertension compared to subjects who had sufficient potassium intake.
It was also described in the 2018 Global Nursing Journal, in addition to maintaining fluid balance, potassium also plays a role in nerve function and muscle contraction. Potassium affects the activity of both skeletal and cardiac muscles.
Decreased potassium levels can have a negative effect on the body because it causes a condition called hypokalemia. This condition affects the frequency of the heart rate which has an effect on the slowing of the heart rate.
Referring to the 2019 RDA, the ideal potassium intake is 4,700 mg per day. Foods high in potassium are widely distributed in fruits and vegetables. Some of them such as bananas, avocados, watermelons, spinach, to nuts such as red beans, green beans, soybeans, are able to meet your daily needs. The more diverse you eat fruits and vegetables, the easier it is for you to meet your potassium intake.
3. Meet the intake of selenium
Selenium is part of an enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx). This enzyme acts as an antioxidant that prevents the formation of free radicals. A related GPx deficiency can also accelerate the atherosclerosis process.
An observational study published in the Farmaka Journal in 2019 explained that a 50 percent increase in blood selenium levels was associated with a 24 percent reduction in the risk of coronary heart events. So, meeting the daily intake of the mineral selenium has the potential to maintain heart health.
The need for selenium for the Indonesian people based on the 2019 RDA is only around 30 micrograms (mcg) for adults and 20 mcg for children. The highest selenium content in food is found in meat and seafood. In addition, selenium is also easily found in nuts, cereals, to milk and various processed products.
4. Limit sodium or sodium intake
Sodium intake is one of the nutrient intakes that can affect blood pressure and the incidence of hypertension. Recommendations from the Association of Indonesian Cardiovascular Specialists (PERKI) in 2015 and the RDA in 2019, agreed that sodium intake should not exceed 2,000 mg per person per day.
Citing a report in the 2017 Journal of Health, increased sodium intake causes the body to retain fluids which results in increased blood volume. As a result, the heart needs to pump harder to push the increased volume of blood through increasingly narrow blood vessels. If this condition continues, it will lead to hypertension.
Furthermore, the journal also describes sources of sodium that are generally consumed by the public, including, every 1 gram of table salt contains about 400 mg of sodium. When converted into household units of measure, teaspoon of table salt or the equivalent of 4 grams, already contains about 1,600 mg of sodium.
If it is added to the consumption of instant food, biscuit products, bread, chips, to cooking spices such as soy sauce and shrimp paste that is excessive and continuous, it will have a negative impact on the body. Therefore, getting used to reading product nutrition labels also needs to be applied to measure how much sodium intake is consumed each day.
5. Limit fat intake
In a balanced amount, the fat contained in food is useful in increasing the amount of energy, helping the absorption of vitamins A, D, E and K, to the production of hormones in the body. However, when the intake is excessive, it will have a negative impact on health.
Sourced from a 2017 Health Media Journal report, high consumption of fatty foods can increase the risk of plaque formation in blood vessels. The plaque will develop into atherosclerosis which causes narrowing to blockage, and the flexibility of blood vessels is reduced.
Furthermore, this condition causes the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart wall tissue to be disrupted, thereby increasing the risk of a sudden heart attack. If a blockage occurs in a blood vessel in the brain, it will lead to a stroke.
Based on the 2014 Balanced Nutrition Guidelines (PGS), the consumption of fat in a daily meal is recommended no more than 25 percent of the total energy requirement or about 47 grams.
In addition, the use of oil is also recommended not to exceed 5 tablespoons (sdm) per person per day to reduce the risk of plaque formation in blood vessels.
Those are some nutrients that you can fulfill and limit their intake in your daily diet. Supported by clean and healthy living behavior, regular and measurable physical activity to managing stress can be a good step in maintaining a healthy heart and blood vessels. From now on, yes!