6 Types Of Hemorrhoid Surgery And What Are The Options

6 Types Of Hemorrhoid Surgery And What Are The Options

Bumisuka.com – 6 Types Of Hemorrhoid Surgery And What Are The Options. Hemorrhoids or hemorrhoids are swollen veins that can be internal, meaning they are inside the rectum, or external, meaning they are outside the rectum.

According to the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons (ASCRS), a high-fiber diet and drinking about 8 to 10 glasses of water per day can usually help manage symptoms by promoting soft stools and regular bowel movements.

In some cases, a person may also need to use a stool softener to reduce straining during a bowel movement, as straining can worsen hemorrhoids.

However, for some people the methods above are not enough. ASCRS estimates that less than 10 percent of hemorrhoid cases require surgery, but this may be needed in some cases when an external or prolapsed hemorrhoid becomes overly irritated, infected, or if it develops complications.

Hemorrhoid surgery is safe and effective most of the time, but one still needs to eat a high-fiber diet, prevent constipation, and take care of the buttocks to prevent new hemorrhoids. Well, there are several types of hemorrhoid surgery, talk to your doctor which one is best for you.

Types of hemorrhoid surgery

Surgery for hemorrhoids can be divided into simpler, outpatient, and less invasive procedures that can be performed without anesthesia and more complex inpatient surgeries.

Depending on the severity of your symptoms and whether there are complications, your doctor will determine if you need surgery and the best type of surgery.

The severity of hemorrhoids is classified according to these grades:

  • Grade 1: No prolapse (hemorrhoids have not come out of the anus).
  • Grade 2: Prolapse that comes out of the anus can come back in on its own.
  • Grade 3: Hemorrhoids that come out of the anus can be put back with a finger.
  • Grade 4: Hemorrhoids that come out of the anus cannot be pushed with the fingers and cause pain.
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Surgery without anesthesia

This type of hemorrhoid surgery can be performed in a clinic or doctor’s office without anesthesia.

1. Ligation

Rubber band ligation, hemorrhoid ligation, or banding are procedures to treat internal hemorrhoids of severity up to grade 3. This procedure involves using a tight band around the base of the hemorrhoid to cut off its blood supply, citing Healthline.

Hemorrhoid ligation usually requires two or more procedures that take place about two months apart. It’s not painful, but you may feel some pressure or mild discomfort.

This procedure is not recommended for people taking blood thinners because of the high risk of bleeding complications. There is usually minimal recovery time. Rarely, additional complications can occur such as pain and infection.

2. Sclerotherapy

Reported by WebMD, the doctor will give an injection that inserts a chemical into the hemorrhoid tissue. These chemicals also cut off blood flow to the hemorrhoids and shrink them. You may need to do this every few weeks until the hemorrhoid is completely gone.

You may feel some mild pain or pressure afterwards, but infection is rare. With this treatment, hemorrhoids often come back within a few years.

3. Coagulation therapy

Coagulation therapy or infrared photocoagulation targets grade 1 to 3 internal hemorrhoids. This procedure uses infrared light, heat, or extreme cold to make the hemorrhoid retract and shrink.

This procedure is performed in a clinic or doctor’s office, and is usually accompanied by an anoscopy. Anoscopy is a visualization procedure when a scope is inserted a few inches into the rectum.

Generally, coagulation treatments have few side effects and cause little pain. However, hemorrhoids are more likely to return with this treatment than with ligation.

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4. Ligation of hemorrhoidal arteries

Hemorrhoidal artery ligation (HAL), also known as transanal hemorrhoidal dearterialization (THD), is another option for removing grade 2 or 3 hemorrhoids.

This method detects the blood vessels causing the hemorrhoids using ultrasound and ligating, or closing, the veins.

Research shows this method may be as effective as the traditional hemorrhoidectomy method, but is more invasive, but involves less postoperative pain.

Operation with anesthesia
For this type of surgery, you have to go to the hospital and receive anesthesia.

5. Hemorrhoidectomy

Hemorrhoidectomy is used for grade 3 to 4 hemorrhoids, large external hemorrhoids, internal hemorrhoids that have prolapsed, or that do not respond to non-surgical treatment.

The anesthetic used may be full anesthesia, sedation, or spinal anesthesia similar to an epidural injection during birth. After being given anesthesia, the surgeon will cut.

When the operation is complete, you will be taken to the recovery room for a brief observation. After the medical team is sure that the vital signs are stable, you can go home.

Pain and infection are the most common risks associated with hemorrhoidectomy. There are actually different types of hemorrhoidectomy. These vary in how the doctor approaches the procedure and some may involve more postoperative pain than others.

Generally, the pain lasts for about 1 week after surgery.

6. Hemorrhoidopexy

Hemorrhoidopexy, sometimes referred to as a stapler, is usually treated as a same-day surgery in a hospital, and requires general, regional, or local anesthesia.

Surgical staplers are used to treat prolapsed hemorrhoids, which can be for grades 3 to 4 hemorrhoids. Surgical staplers fix the prolapsed hemorrhoid back into place in the rectum and cut off the blood supply so the tissue will shrink and be reabsorbed.

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Recovery from this procedure takes less time and is less painful than recovery from hemorrhoidectomy. Research shows that a person takes less time to defecate after this procedure, and has fewer sores that don’t heal after 4 weeks. However, there is also evidence of increased recurrence and prolapse rates of hemorrhoids.


Pain is the most common complaint, especially during bowel movements. You can take over-the-counter pain relievers, such as acetaminophen, aspirin, or ibuprofen as directed by your doctor. Soaking in warm water can also help. In addition, stool softeners can also facilitate bowel movements.

Hemorrhoid surgery is very common and is considered safe. However, every operation has some risks. These can include bleeding, infection, and reactions to anesthesia.

You may have difficulty urinating afterward due to swelling or muscle spasms.

If the anal sphincter is damaged during surgery, you may experience fecal incontinence.

Call your doctor immediately if:

  • Experiencing a lot of bleeding.
  • Unable to defecate or urinate.
  • Have a fever.

There are different types of hemorrhoid surgery. Some are outpatient, minimally invasive, and do not require anesthesia, while others require hospitalization and anesthesia and will require postoperative recovery.

The doctor will determine the type and severity of hemorrhoids you have and determine the best treatment.

If you need surgery under anesthesia, there are medications and non-pharmaceutical things you can do to help speed up recovery.

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